Emergency services were called to developer Salboy’s Viadux Tower project in Albert Street early on Tuesday morning.
Contractor Domus is working on the £300m scheme which will rise to 42-storeys when finished next year.
Rochdale contractor Mayo Civil Engineering is the frame contractor on the project.
It is understood construction crews were pumping concrete into flooring on one of the tower’s upper floors when the blast happened.
The injured worker was hospitalised but is understood to have not suffered serious injuries.
Police said emergency services remained in attendance to ensure the building was structurally safe after the incident.
A Greater Manchester Police spokesman said: “Greater Manchester Police were called to Albion Street in the city centre this morning at around 9am to reports of an explosion at a high-rise building.
“Injuries sustained by one of the workers are believed not to be life-changing.”
Salboy and the construction company said a full investigation has been opened.