This reliance on an evolving IC ecosystem was something that Katerra decided to avoid. As with Splash, it was based on the idea of using a digital platform to integrate design, manufacture and assembly. When it formed in 2015, its founders preferred a vertically integrated business model in which it employed architects, contractors and eventually operated three factories. For a while, it seemed to work: by 2019, it was valued at $4bn. However, two years later it filed for bankruptcy protection and sold its factories – one of which, in Spokane, Washington State, contained one of the largest cross-laminated timber presses in the world.